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Additional 5600
London, The British Library (in index)
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Sample Illustration
© The British Library, London
Accession Number:
Additional 5600
Hijri Date:
Gregorian Date:
1616 (to nearest hijri year)
India, Mughal
Folios extant in ms.:
Columns x Rows:
4 x 25
Page Size (h x w):
313 x 200 mm
Text Size (h x w):
173 x 108 mm
Ms Type:
Ms Status:
Completion Status:
Ready to upload to website
Illuminations in ms:
Illustrations in ms:
90 ( 90 Shahnama )
Illustration Records in archive:
Last updated by:
Date last updated:
2008-07-08 18:42:34
Public Notes

The manuscript was refurbished in Abd al-Rahim Khan-i-Khannan's studio. As it lacks a colophon, it is hard to determine the date of the original manuscript prior to the addition of the sub-imperial Mughal illustrations.

However, some folios suggest the existence of another layer beneath the Mughal paintings - as some of the outlines of the earlier compositions are visible on the reverse. Original compositions are visible on the reverse of folios, 156v, 211v, and 338v.

Moreover, in addition to the overpainted folios, thirty-five blank folios were also incorporated into the manuscript and were subsequently illustrated. These include folios, 12v, 42v, 65v, 75v, 78v, 84v, 107v, 139v, 147v, 154v, 197v, 200v, 269v, 277v, 304v, 310v, 343v, 344v, 372r, 385v, 387v, 404v, 408v, 411v, 477v, 483v, 488v, 538v, 548r, 551v, 555v, 562v, 573v, 578v. Most of these illustrations appear towards the end of the manuscript.

Folio 274r of this manuscript is inscribed with the name of the artist Shamal and a date 1025/ 1616.

The flyleaf bears the seal of Abd al-'Azim Khan 1168 (1754-55).

A note on folio 2r reads 'The late lord Jahangir Padshah had given this Shahnama to the least of his slaves, Ilahwardi Cela, on the first of the month of Azar Ilahi in the year 8 (23 November 1613). Since it belonged to me, I passed it on to [my] dear brother, Khwaja Muhammad Rashid.'


Jeremiah P. Losty, The Art of the Book in India, British Library, London, 1982, pp. 122-3.

John Seyller, "Workshop and Patron in Mughal India: The Freer Ramayana and Other Illustrated Manuscripts of 'Abd al-Rahim", Artibus Asiae, Supplementum XLII [42], Zurich, 1999, pp. 263-73.

(Adeela Qureshi)

Dating Ref:
Painting, inscription Inscription on the painting.
Origin Ref:
Titley, N.M. Miniatures from Persian manuscripts. Catalogue and subject index of paintings from Persia, India and Turkey in the British Library and British Museum. London. UK.
Illustration Ref:
Titley, N.M. Miniatures from Persian manuscripts. Catalogue and subject index of paintings from Persia, India and Turkey in the British Library and British Museum. London. UK.
Illustration in archive - 90     (back to top)
f. 012v
Hushang kills the Black Div (1616)
f. 018v
Zahhak hears Kava's complaint (1616)
f. 024v
Faridun tests his sons (1616)
f. 028r
The murder of Iraj (1616)
f. 032v
Manuchihr kills Tur in battle (1616)
f. 037r
Sam recognizes his son Zal in the Simurgh's nest (1616)
f. 042v
Rudaba and Zal together (1616)
f. 051r
The mobads question Zal (1616)
f. 054r
The birth of Rustam (1616)
f. 064r
Rustam catches Rakhsh (1616)
f. 065v
Rustam kills Qulun (1616)
f. 068v
A minstrel div tempts Kay Kavus to invade Mazandaran (1616)
f. 075v
Rustam's seventh labour: he kills the White Div (1616)
f. 078v
Kay Kavus returns to Iran and rewards Rustam for his deeds (1616)
f. 084v
Kay Kavus airborne (1616)
f. 088r
Tahmina visits Rustam's chamber (1616)
f. 099r
Rustam mortally wounds Suhrab (1616)
f. 107v
The fire ordeal of Siyavush (1616)
f. 116v
Afrasiyab greets Siyavush (1616)
f. 128r
Guruy executes Siyavush (1616)
f. 130r
Piran and the child Kay Khusrau before Afrasiyab (1616)
f. 134r
Rustam kills Pilsam (1616)
f. 139v
Kay Khusrau and Farangis watch Giv defeat the Turanians (1616)
f. 142v
Kay Khusrau crosses the Oxus with Farangis and Giv (1616)
f. 147v
Kay Khusrau pledges vengeance against Afrasiyab (1616)
f. 154v
Farud shoots Giv's horse from under him (1616)
f. 156v
Jarira commits suicide over her son's body (1616)
f. 169v
Ruhham overcomes Bazur the Turanian wizard (1616)
f. 176r
Khaqan Chin goes to inspect the Iranian army (1616)
f. 178r
Kamus fights Giv and Tus (1616)
f. 180v
Rustam kills Ashkabus and his horse (1616)
f. 182v
Rustam captures and kills Kamus (1616)
f. 183v
Rustam overturns Chingish by seizing the tail of his horse (1616)
f. 189r
Rustam lifts Shangul from his saddle (1616)
f. 197v
Rustam overthrows Puladvand (1616)
f. 200v
Akvan Div flings Rustam into the sea (1616)
f. 211v
Rustam rescues Bizhan from the pit (1616)
f. 222v
Bizhan fights with Human (1616)
f. 234r
The second combat: Giv fights Guruy Zirih (1616)
f. 236v
Piran escapes from Gudarz up the mountainside (1616)
f. 244v
Afrasiyab learns of the killing of Piran (1616)
f. 250r
Kay Khusrau kills Shida (1616)
f. 257r
Kay Khusrau besieges Gang Dizh (1616)
f. 264v
Kay Khusrau crosses Lake Zara (1616)
f. 269v
The death of Kay Kavus (1616)
f. 274r
Kay Khusrau gives advice to the Iranians (1616)
f. 277v
Rustam and other champions searching in the mountains for their comrades lost in the snow (1616)
f. 280v
Gushtasp seeks work in Rum with the smith Burab (1616)
f. 285r
Gushtasp kills a dragon in Rum (1616)
f. 288v
Caesar realises the true identity of Gushtasp (1616)
f. 295r
Garami son of Jamasp seizes the Iranian standard but is killed (1616)
f. 304v
Isfandiyar finds his brother Farshidvard (1616)
f. 310v
Isfandiyar's fifth labour: he kills the Simurgh (1616)
f. 314v
Isfandiyar kills Arjasp to rescue his sisters (1616)
f. 320v
Rustam kicks aside the rock pushed by Bahman (1616)
f. 325v
Rustam boasts about his strength (1616)
f. 333r
Rustam shoots Isfandiyar in the eyes with a double-pointed arrow (1616)
f. 338v
Rustam kills Shaghad before dying (1616)
f. 343v
The laundryman rescues Darab from the water (1616)
f. 344v
Rashnavad finds Darab asleep by a ruined castle (1616)
f. 346v
Darab receives the crown (1616)
f. 350r
Iskandar with Dara (1616)
f. 353r
Iskandar attends the dying Dara (1616)
f. 357r
Mihran predicts Iskandar's coming to Kayd (1616)
f. 361v
Battle between the armies of Iskandar and the Fur (1616)
f. 364v
Iskandar visits Qaydafa disguised as a messenger (1616)
f. 372r
Iskandar builds a wall against Gog and Magog (1616)
f. 385v
Ardashir views Haftvad's castle (1616)
f. 387v
Ardashir recognizes Shapur during a polo game (1616)
f. 399v
Shapur freed from Caesar's prison by the slavegirl (1616)
f. 402v
The King of Rum captive before Shapur (1616)
f. 404v
Shapur executes Mani (1616)
f. 408v
Bahram Gur hunts in the company of Azada (1616)
f. 411v
Bahram Gur learns about the death of his father, Yazdagird (1616)
f. 419v
A drunken shoemaker rides on Bahram Gur's escaped lion (1616)
f. 437r
Shangul replies to Bahram Gur's letter (1616)
f. 452v
Anushirvan executes Mazdak and his followers (1616)
f. 464v
Anushirvan finds a young man in his harem (1616)
f. 477v
Anushirvan receives the Khaqan's daughter (1616)
f. 483v
Buzurjmihr shows the Indian how to play backgammon (1616)
f. 488v
Gav and Talhand's forces fight for a second time (1616)
f. 506r
Mihran Sitad recommends Bahram Chubina to Hurmuzd (1616)
f. 525r
Khusrau Parviz and Bahram Chubina dispute kingship rights (1616)
f. 538v
Kharrad Barzin investigates the weeping talisman and reveals its secret (1616)
f. 548r
Bahram Chubina kills the monkey-lion (1616)
f. 551v
The captive Qulun mortally wounds Bahram Chubina (1616)
f. 555v
Khusrau Parviz praises Gurdiya (1616)
f. 562v
The musician Barbad plays for Khusrau Parviz (1616)
f. 573v
Shirin commits suicide by the coffin of Khusrau Parviz (1616)
f. 578v
Sa'd-i Vaqqas kills Rustam (1616)